1.1 The start of the direct line
1.2 Frankish Governance
Numerous small Frankish kingdoms existed during the 5th century, among them the ones in Cologne, Tournai, Le Mans and Cambrai. The kingdom of Tournai eventually came to dominate its neighbours, probably because of its association with Aegidius, the magister militum of northern Gaul. A Frankish king, Childeric I, fought with Aegidius in 463: historians have assumed that Childeric and his son Clovis I were both commanders of the Roman military in the Province of Belgica Secunda and were subordinate to the magister militum. The dominant King became known as The King of East Frankia/West Frankia/of the Franks/Neustria Etc according to the extent of his dominance. Kings of smaller entities could retain their title even after conceding to a dominant ruler.
This is a complex matter. Please see this elaboration.
2.Options covering the time of The Missing Link
An investigation relevant to deciding if
the Wallers of the Royston, Herts, area were descended from the Warrens of
I believe (admittedy from only a few records) that 39xa Sir Laurence had a youngest son 40xd Anthony who was stricken from Laurences will and genealogies derived from this will; probably because he had favoured the protestant movement.Please see Note 2 and also Note3, This deduction is supported by the fact that Anthony's son 41xda William was very probably a Dissenter.
38 Sir John Warren
m Eleanor Bryn
40xd Anthony Warren
b ~1467 Claybury, Essex,
m Margaret Leigh
d 1557 Bassingbourn, Cambs
41xda William Warren the first to assume the alias Waller
b ~1482? Bassingbourn
d 1567 Combs, Suffolk , that had many Dissenters.
Puritan Movement was founded around 1558 as Elizabeth came to the throne.
Most Dissenter sects are now part of the United
Reformed Churches. This first "alias
Waller" and his children are not listed in most Warren genealogies;
hence the family tale of a "missing link". I think it likely that this
happened because he broke with his father's
family (the Poynton Warrens) for reasons of sectarian preference.
This break is indicated by the fact that his much younger brother 41xdb
Richard Warren got some of the Warren inheritance, as indicated by
Richard's daughter being described as an heiress and he appears to have inherited comparatively little. One of the following other reasons might well have been the cause of the break or that a link between the Poynton Warrens and Basingbourn Warrens alias Waller is missing:
1. 41xda William Warren alias Waller (~1482-1567) had become a member of the Anti-Catholic Movement (Henry VIII 1509-1547) and changed his commonly used name (alias) to Waller. (The Kentish branch of this family were prominent Presbyterians). He probably becoming a Dissenter. He died in a well known Dissenter village (Combs in Suffolk);
2. His father's will had been written after this son had received his inheritance by a Deed of Conveyance.
3. Genealogical error (he was not related to the Poynton Warrens)
4. He was illegitimate, this may be the cause of the Arms of some of his descendants having a Bordure Ermine. However a Bordure Ermine can be used to indicate a junior line, this supports descent from Anthony the youngest son.
843 Norse invade
Neustria. Charles II gives money and lands
to some of them to defend Neustria against the others, disastrous.
845 Ragnar Lodbrok Sigurdsson's raid on Paris, see below,
858-870 Norse attack the Church, slaying Bishops and clergy,
burning Cathedrals and Churches.
862 Weland the Northman converted to Christianity.
New Carolingian policy to seek conversions.
886 Rollo invades Seine, besieges Paris, reaches Lorraine
and governs from Rouen after Treaty of St Clair-sur- Epte (911),
as Duke of Normandy.
931 Pagan revolt agaist William Long-sword, Duke of Normandy,
in Cotentin and Bessin.
942 Another revolt put down by the King of France not Richard I,
Duke of Normandy.
Ragnar Lodbrok Sigurdsson's raid on Paris
(b ~775) was one of the most adventurous
and successful Vikings. On the shores of the Baltic,
in the Orkneys, the Hebrides, Ireland, Scotland,
and Northumbria (the area which included all the
counties along the English coast north of the Humber River),
he spread the terror of his name. He was already an old man,
when in March 845, he boldly brought his fleet of 120 ships
up the Seine River in France. He caught the French totally
off-guard by his early arrival and sailed up-stream to Rouen,
where he sacked the town, and then on to Carolivenna
(now Chaussy) near St. Germain-en-Laye and about
nine miles from St. Denis. The French king, Charles "The Bald"
(b ~823) heard of Ragnar's coming and marched at once
with a moderate size army against him; but, on approaching
the enemy, he made the mistake of dividing his force,
sending the two detachments down river on opposite banks.
The Vikings fell upon the smaller force and slaughtered it,
taking 111 prisoners. Ragnar sacrificed the prisoners to
his Nordic gods and hanged them on an island in the Seine
in full view of the second Frankish detachment,
and then in full fury fell on the now unnerved French troops.
Charles, with the remnant of his army, was compelled to
take refuge in the abbey of St. Denis and there to watch events.
Ragnar, after terrorizing and devastating the area,
sailed boldly past the cooped-up Frankish force,
and at the end of the month, arrived before the walls of Paris.
The city then was not much more than an island town
in the middle of the Seine, but it was beginning to count
among the chief cities of the French kingdom, and the prize
now offered to the Danes was a rich one. On the approach of
Ragnar, most of the population took flight.
On Easter Sunday, March 28, 845, Ragnar occupied
and plundered Paris. He kept as a souvenir a heavy iron bar
from the city gate. His position must have been precarious,
for Charles, who was behind him and in a position to block
his escape, had been collecting reinforcements and was now
at the head of a considerable army. It seemed that all Charles
had to do was take up a proper strategic position and
Ragnar would be lost. But the necessary courage failed
the Christian king, and now came the first of many pitiful a
nd short-sighted French decisions; those follies of cowardly
statesmanship that seemed safe expedients. Charles bribed
the pirates to depart. Ragnar, therefore, sailed home
unmolested, taking with him the plunder of Paris and
7,000 pounds of silver, the price of his promise to leave
Charles's kingdom in peace. It was the first recorded payment
of protection money to the Vikings, which became such a well
known tactic, it was called, "danegeld" which meant Dane's Pay.
Ragnar's expedition, didn't get away totally free;
a plague visited his fleet on their way back to Denmark.
4. SLOW DEATH OF THE WESTERN ROMAN EMPIRE IN GAUL
4.1 Dalmatia and some parts of Galliae and Septem Provinciae (see Maps) had remained under the Western Emperor Nepos Nepos (he was married to a niece of the Eastern Emperor Zeno's wife) even after Italia had been seized by Orestes, (the Magister Militum) who put his son Romulus Augustulus on the throne of the Italia remnant of the Western Empire. Romulus was deposed by Odoacer the Goth in 475 but Nepos survived until he was murdered by his soldiers in 480, when Odoacer conquered Dalmatia. The other Dioecesis of the Western Roman Empire were conquered by the Suevi & Visigoths in Hispania, the Moors, Vandals and Alans in Africa & the Salian Franks, Burgundians and various other Teutonic Tribes in Gallia and the Salian Franks, Visigoths and Burgundians in Septem Provinciae.
4.2 In 418 Honorius gave the Visigoths settlements (under the Roman practice of "hospitalitas") in Aquitanica I & II which they expanded until they had taken over all of these provinces and also Narbonensis 1. The remnant government of the Western Roman Empire granted them independence in these areas in 475 when they had also conquered most of Hispania.The Visigoths lost most of their Gallic lands to the Franks by 531, although they held on to Septimania until 759.
4.3 Roman "Rule" in Greater Burgundy effectively ended in 476 with Odoacer's takeover of Italia and the Burgundians and Alemans gaining rule over Lugdunensis I, Septem Provinciae east of the Loire, Maxima Sequanorum and the northern Alps. The Burgundians ruled Burgundy (Map D) until 536 when they were conquered by the Franks.
4.4 Syagrius (Dux under Emperor Nepos) ruled what he called Belgica
Secunda, but actually per Maps B & C all of Lugdunensis except
Lugdunensis I, ) until defeated by Clovis I King of the Salian Franks of
Tournai, at Soissons in 486. Clovis came to rule all of Austrasia, see Map
D below, by defeating the other Salian Frankish Kings, Ragnacaire of
Cambrai and Chararic of Tongres. Also defeating the Kings of the Mosan
(Trier & Metz) Franks, Hessian Franks (Fulda) and Ripuarian Franks
(Cologne). This started the expansion that created the Frankish Empire.
Nepos was murdered in 480, nevertheless Syagrius carried on issuing
coinage in the name of Julius Nepos until Syagrius was defeated by Clovis
I in 486. Thus Roman "rule" in Gaul was virtually extinct by 486.
Otway Family Website states that on 10th October 1665 John Otway received, by
Patent, a grant of the Manor and Castle of Cloghonan in the Barony of
Upper Ormond in the County of Tipperary, including 3,776 acres of land,
after exchanging them for land in Kerry. This was created into a Manor
by Patent dated 5th December 1684.
He wished to settle in Tipperary, near his old friends, Colonels Prittie and Sadleir, who had acquired property in that area. Colonel John purchased part of the estate from the "Innocent Papists", then O'Kennedy and O'Ryan. This became Castle Otway.